This document draws on MMA experiences worldwide by synthesizing results from over 25 natural science studies conducted over the past five years in 18 tropical countries in 48 MMAs. The analysis focuses on the role of MMAs in maintaining healthy oceans, showing that MMAs can be used to enhance fisheries outside their borders and safeguard threatened species. Conserving multiple habitats using MMAs can also protect diverse livelihoods and increase fisheries yields. Local protection of marine resources through the MMA process can provide strong local benefits to species, habitats, and people. Local protection buffers against global climate change impacts while maintaining the richness of marine life. Finally, MMAs benefit by using new scientific approaches and engaging citizen scientists.
- Kaufman L and Tschirky J. 2010. Living with the Sea. Science and Knowledge Division, Conservation International, Arlington, VA, USA