This Refuge Vulnerability Assessment and Alternatives (RVAA) Technical Guide provides the step-by-step details for conducting vulnerability assessments for refuges and their supporting landscapes and to develop strategies and alternatives for management in the face of current and future drivers of change. A companion document, Manager’s Guide to Refuge Vulnerability Assessment and Alternatives: Overview and Practical Considerations (Manager’s Guide) provides the introduction to the RVAA process and guidance for managers to understand and plan the work.
- Crist, P.J., P. Comer, and M. Harkness. 2012. The Refuge Vulnerability Assessment and Alternatives Technical Guide. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Arlington, VA.