1. NatureServe
    Chief Ecologist
    (703) 797-4802

    Patrick J. Comer is Chief Ecologist, NatureServe, responsible for coordinating initiatives to develop a classification of terrestrial and palustrine ecosystems across North America. He serves as consulting ecologist to develop maps of vegetation coverage for the southwest US with the National Gap Analysis Program with USGS. Mr. Comer holds an M.S. in natural resources (forest ecology) from the University of Michigan.



Ecosystem types are recurring groups of species interacting with their environment. We use ecological classifications as a practical way to describe all natural realms. Terrestrial classifications describe forests, shrublands, grasslands, wetlands, and sparsely vegetated lands. Freshwater classifications describe rivers, streams, and lakes. Subterranean classifications describe all forms of caves. Marine classifications describe the nearshore and deep water seas.

Upland ecosystems of mixed-grass prairie and Ponderosa pine woodlands near Boulder, Colorado. Photo by Patrick Comer | NatureServe.

Ecosystem types reflect ecological processes, and provide a practical way to understand and conserve biodiversity.  They provide an important compliment to conservation of individual species. By classifying and describing ecosystem types, we can conduct inventories and map their location and extent. By understanding native species composition, and the key ecological attributes that determine that composition, we can evaluate their condition and better understand the effects of human land or water use.  This knowledge forms a foundation for conservation action.

  1. NatureServe Explorer®

    ProductData & Maps
  2. Ecosystem Classification

    ProductStandards & Methods
  3. International Vegetation Classification

  4. Ecological Integrity Assessment

    ProductStandards & Methods